Autism Science

Integrating Mental Health Services for Mothers of Children With Autism

Source: 
Psychiatric Services
Date Published: 
September 1, 2013
Abstract: 

Although up to 40% of mothers of children with autism report clinically significant depressive symptoms, there has been little attention to the mental health needs of parents. Because most autism services for young children rely on active parental engagement to deliver recommended therapies, maternal functioning directly affects the intensity and quality of therapy that children with autism receive. Developing feasible and acceptable strategies to support the mental health of mothers who care for children with autism has the potential to optimize both maternal and child functioning.

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Treating People with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Source: 
Cochrane Collaboration
Date Published: 
August 20, 2013
Abstract: 

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterised by problems with social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive behaviours and limited activities and interests. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of antidepressants that are sometimes given to reduce anxiety or obsessive‐compulsive behaviours. We found nine trials, involving 320 people, which evaluated four SSRIs: fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, fenfluramine and citalopram. Five studies included only children and four studies included only adults. One trial enrolled 149 children, but the other trials were much smaller. We found no trials that evaluated sertraline, paroxetine or escitalopram. There is no evidence to support the use of SSRIs to treat autism in children. There is limited evidence, which is not yet sufficiently robust, to suggest effectiveness of SSRIs in adults with autism. Treatment with an SSRI may cause side effects. Decisions about the use of SSRIs for established clinical indications that may co‐occur with autism, such as obsessive‐compulsive disorder and depression in adults or children, and anxiety in adults, should be made on a case‐by‐case basis.

Effects of a Self-Monitoring Device on Socially Relevant Behaviors in Adolescents with Asperger Disorder: A Pilot Study

Source: 
Assistive Technology
Date Published: 
Fall 2013
Abstract: 

This article reports the results of two case studies. Two middle school-aged participants with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders were taught to self-monitor behaviors impacting their social acceptance by peers in their general education settings: oral self-stimulatory behaviors and conversation skills. Results indicate that the intervention was effective to some degree with both participants. As a result of the self-monitoring intervention, one participant decreased self-stimulatory behaviors; however, his data were highly variable throughout the study though lower on average during intervention than in baseline. The other participant's targeted skills in communication were only slightly improved. Self-monitoring using a vibrating reminder appears to be a low-cost intervention with high levels of social acceptability, low training requirements for teachers or students, and no social stigma.

Long-Term Outcomes of Parent-Assisted Social Skills Intervention for High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Source: 
Autism
Date Published: 
August 30, 2013
Abstract: 

This study aims to evaluate the long-term outcome of Children's Friendship Training, a parent-assisted social skills intervention for children. Prior research has shown Children's Friendship Training to be superior to wait-list control with maintenance of gains at 3-month follow-up. Participants were families of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who completed Children's Friendship Training 1-5 years earlier. They were recruited through mail, phone, and email. Information collected included parent and child completed questionnaires and a phone interview. Data were collected on 24 of 52 potential participants (46%). With an average of 35-month follow-up, participants had a mean age of 12.6 years. Results indicated that participants at follow-up were invited on significantly more play dates, showed less play date conflict, improved significantly in parent-reported social skills and problem behaviors, and demonstrated marginally significant decreases in loneliness when compared to pre-Children's Friendship Training.

Psychotropic Medication Use and Polypharmacy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Source: 
Pediatrics
Date Published: 
November 1, 2013
Abstract: 

The objectives of this study were to examine rates and predictors of psychotropic use and multiclass polypharmacy among commercially insured children with autism spectrum disorders. Despite minimal evidence of the effectiveness or appropriateness of multidrug treatment of ASD, psychotropic medications are commonly used, singly and in combination, for ASD and its co-occurring conditions. Our results indicate the need to develop standards of care around the prescription of psychotropic medications to children with ASD.

Comparative Efficacy of LEAP, TEACCH and Non-Model-Specific Special Education Programs for Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Source: 
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Date Published: 
June 28, 2013
Abstract: 

LEAP and TEACCH represent two comprehensive treatment models (CTMs) that have been widely used across several decades to educate young children with autism spectrum disorders. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare high fidelity LEAP (n = 22) and TEACCH (n = 25) classrooms to each other and a control condition (n = 28), in which teachers in high quality special education programs used non-model-specific practices. A total of 198 children were included in data analysis. Across conditions, children's performances improved over time. This study raises issues of the replication of effects for CTMs, and whether having access to a high quality special education program is as beneficial as access to a specific CTM.

Maternal Antibodies from Mothers of Children with Autism Alter Brain Growth and Social Behavior Development in the Rhesus Monkey

Source: 
Translational Psychiatry
Date Published: 
July 9, 2013
Abstract: 

Antibodies directed against fetal brain proteins of 37 and 73 kDa molecular weight are found in approximately 12% of mothers who have children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but not in mothers of typically developing children. This finding has raised the possibility that these immunoglobulin G (IgG) class antibodies cross the placenta during pregnancy and impact brain development, leading to one form of ASD.

Maternal Antibodies from Mothers of Children with Autism Alter Brain Growth and Social Behavior Development in the Rhesus Monkey

Source: 
Translational Psychiatry
Date Published: 
July 9, 2013
Abstract: 

Antibodies directed against fetal brain proteins of 37 and 73 kDa molecular weight are found in approximately 12% of mothers who have children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but not in mothers of typically developing children. This finding has raised the possibility that these immunoglobulin G (IgG) class antibodies cross the placenta during pregnancy and impact brain development, leading to one form of ASD.

Electronic Medical Records May Reveal Subgroup of Autism

Source: 
Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative
Date Published: 
January 16, 2013
Abstract: 

Some children diagnosed with autism may fall into distinct subgroups based on their symptoms and other diagnoses, researchers report in the January issue of Pediatrics. The three subgroups identified in the study show some overlap in symptoms, but each is characterized by a distinct set of features: seizures, general health problems such as gastrointestinal distress, and psychiatric problems. The analysis relied on the largest database yet, and looked at symptoms over time.

Lack of Training Begets Autism Diagnosis Bottleneck

Source: 
Simons Foundation Autism Research Institute
Date Published: 
January 13, 2014
Abstract: 

One of the frustrations that parents of children with autism most commonly voice is the long wait for a diagnosis. In the meantime, the children grow up and out of the critical period for early intervention. The scenario for adults seeking an autism diagnosis is even grimmer, as there are fewer practitioners experienced in caring for adults with autism than in caring for children with the disorder. There are few comprehensive statistics about waiting times, but the bottlenecks in access to autism diagnosis and care are widely acknowledged. These concerns are spurring the medical community to take a hard look at the failings of professional training in contributing to the problem.