Biomarkers

Brain Enlargement Seen In Boys With Regressive Autism, But Not Early Onset Autism

Source: 
Medical News Today
Date Published: 
November 29, 2011
Abstract: 

In the largest study of brain development in preschoolers with autism to date, a study by UC Davis MIND Institute researchers has found that 3-year-old boys with regressive autism, but not early onset autism, have larger brains than their healthy counterparts.

Another Genetic Clue To Autism: Opposite Malfunctions Have Same Result

Source: 
Medical News Today
Date Published: 
November 25, 2011
Abstract: 

In most cases, autism is caused by a combination of genetic factors, but some cases, such as Fragile X syndrome, can be traced to a variation in a single gene that causes overproduction of proteins in brain synapses. Now a new study led by the same MIT neuroscientist who made that discovery, finds that tuberous sclerosis is caused by a malfunction at the opposite end of the spectrum: underproduction of the synaptic proteins.

67% More Prefrontal Brain Neurons In Children With Autism

Source: 
Medical News Today
Date Published: 
November 8, 2011
Abstract: 

A small study found that male children with autism had larger brain weights and 67% more prefrontal brain neurons than children without autism.

University of Missouri researchers have found distinct differences between the facial characteristics of children with autism compared to those of typically developing children.

Source: 
Medical News Today
Date Published: 
October 22, 2011
Abstract: 

The face and brain develop in coordination, with each influencing the other, beginning in the embryo and continuing through adolescence. Now, University of Missouri researchers have found distinct differences between the facial characteristics of children with autism compared to those of typically developing children...

Evidence found for the genetic basis of autism: Models of autism show that gene copy number controls

Source: 
Science Daily
Date Published: 
October 5, 2011
Abstract: 

Scientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) have discovered that one of the most common genetic alterations in autism -- deletion of a 27-gene cluster on chromosome 16 -- causes autism-like features. By generating mouse models of autism using a technique known as chromosome engineering, CSHL Professor Alea Mills and colleagues provide the first functional evidence that inheriting fewer copies of these genes leads to features resembling those used to diagnose children with autism.

Animal Model Research Could Lead To The Development Of Diagnostic Tests For Autism Based On Biomarkers

Source: 
Medical News Today
Date Published: 
September 14, 2011
Abstract: 

The first transgenic mouse model of a rare and severe type of autism called Timothy Syndrome is improving the scientific understanding of autism spectrum disorder in general and may help researchers design more targeted interventions and treatments.

Multivariate Searchlight Classification of Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Children and Adolescents with Autism

Source: 
Biological Psychiatry
Date Published: 
September 5, 2011
Abstract: 

Multiple brain regions, including those belonging to the default mode network, exhibit aberrant structural organization in children with autism. Brain-based biomarkers derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging data may contribute to identification of the neuroanatomical basis of symptom heterogeneity and to the development of targeted early interventions.

Distinct features of autistic brain revealed in novel Stanford/Packard analysis of MRI scans

Source: 
Stanford University
Date Published: 
September 2, 2011
Abstract: 

Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital have used a novel method for analyzing brain-scan data to distinguish children with autism from typically developing children. Their discovery reveals that the gray matter in a network of brain regions known to affect social communication and self-related thoughts has a distinct organization in people with autism.

Attention deficit, autism share genetic risk factors

Source: 
SFARI
Date Published: 
August 22, 2011
Abstract: 

People with autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share some of the same underlying genetic risk factors, according to a study published this month in Science Translational Medicine. This is one of the first studies to find risk variants that are common to both disorders.
In searching for rare copy number variations (CNVs) — deletions and duplications in genetic material — in people with ADHD, the researchers found more than a dozen regions that include genes implicated in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, intellectual disability and autism.

Researchers Reveal 18 Novel Subtype-Dependent Genetic Variants for Autism Spectrum Disorders and Identify Potential Genetic Markers for Diagnostic Screening

Source: 
Science Daily
Date Published: 
April 28, 2011
Abstract: 

By dividing individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into four subtypes according to similarity of symptoms and reanalyzing existing genome-wide genetic data on these individuals vs. controls, researchers at the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences have identified 18 novel and highly significant genetic markers for ASD. In addition, ten of the variants were associated with more than one ASD subtype, providing partial replication of these genetic markers. This study thus identifies candidate genes for ASD and potential subtype-dependent genetic markers for diagnostic screening.