Brain Development

Neural Stem Cells Retain High Levels on Reactive Oxygen Species, Study Finds

Source: 
Science Daily
Date Published: 
January 6, 2011
Abstract: 

Researchers at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research have shown for the first time that neural stem cells, the cells that give rise to neurons, maintain high levels of ROS to help regulate normal self-renewal and differentiation. These findings may have significant implications for brain repair and abnormal brain development.

Prevalence of Autism According to Maternal Immigrant Status and Ethnic Origin

Source: 
Acta Psychiatrica Scandanavia, M.-J Dealberto
Date Published: 
January 2011
Year Published: 
2011

This study examined the rates of autism according to maternal immigrant status and ethnic origins based on the vitamin D insufficiency hypothesis, which proposes that maternal vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy could be associated with autism. The study provided further support to the association between maternal immigrant status and an increased risk of autism. In addition, although more complex, ethnic origin was shown to have an effect on the rates of autism; the study found that black ethnicity demonstrated a higher incidence of autism, particularly when considering autism associated with mental retardation. The results found in the study are consistent with the maternal vitamin D insufficiency hypothesis. To understand the effect of maternal vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy on the development of the fetal brain, neurobiological studies are necessary.

How Cortical Nerve Cells Form Synapses With Neighbors

Source: 
Science Daily
Date Published: 
December 22, 2010
Abstract: 

Newly published research led by Professor Z. Josh Huang, Ph.D., of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) sheds important new light on how neurons in the developing brain make connections with one another. This activity, called synapse validation, is at the heart of the process by which neural circuits self-assemble, and is directly implicated in pathology that gives rise to devastating neurodevelopmental disorders including autism and schizophrenia.

A Set Of Brain Proteins Is Found To Play A Role In Over 100 Brain Diseases And Provides A New Insight Into Evolution Of Behavior

Source: 
Medical News Today
Date Published: 
December 21, 2010
Abstract: 

In research just published, scientists have studied human brain samples to isolate a set of proteins that accounts for over 130 brain diseases. The paper also shows an intriguing link between diseases and the evolution of the human brain.

Researchers Develop Mouse Model To Help Find How A Gene Mutation Leads To Autism

Source: 
Medical News Today
Date Published: 
December 20, 2010
Abstract: 

Researchers from Mount Sinai School of Medicine have found that when one copy of the SHANK3 gene in mice is missing, nerve cells do not effectively communicate and do not show cellular properties associated with normal learning. This discovery may explain how mutations affecting SHANK3 may lead to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The research is currently published in Molecular Autism.

Altered Functional Connectivity in Frontal Lobe Circuits Is Associated with Variation in the Autism Risk Gene CNTNAP2

Source: 
Pediatrics, Scott-Van Zeeland et al
Date Published: 
December 2010
Year Published: 
2010

People with a common variant of the CNTNAP2 gene, a gene associated with a heightened risk of autism, ADD/ADHD and other language difficulties, have a "disconnect" between their frontal lobe and other areas of the brain important for language, according to this fMRI study. The disconnect may help explain some of the language and communication difficulties that are characteristic of autism. About one-third of all people carry the variant of the CNTNAP2 gene.

Regardless of whether the test subjects had autism or not, children with the CNTNAP2 "risk" gene showed more activity in the frontal lobe of the brain during a "language learning" task than those without the 'risk' gene.

Changes in Prefrontal Axons May Disrupt the Network in Autism

Source: 
Journal of Neuroscience, Zikopoulos and Barbas
Date Published: 
December 2010
Year Published: 
2010

A post-mortem investigation measuring features of the different axons traveling beneath the cortical surface. The crux of the study is whether in autism there are changes in axons, "which are the conduit for neural communication." In comparison to control samples, autism brain tissue had fewer large axons connecting regions of the prefrontal cortex to the other areas of cortex.  Added to this connection imbalance is a thinner coat of axon insulation, called myelin. These findings may help explain why individuals with autism do not adequately shift attention, engage in repetitive behavior, and avoid social interactions.

Smoking during Pregnancy affects Myelin Genes in Offspring

Source: 
Science Daily
Date Published: 
November 16, 2010
Abstract: 

Smoking during pregnancy may interfere with brain development. New animal research shows maternal smoking affects genes important in the formation and action of a fatty brain substance called myelin that insulates brain cell connections. The finding may explain why the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy are more likely to develop attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, autism, drug abuse, and other psychiatric disorders.

Brain Scans Detect Autism's Signature

Source: 
Science Daily
Date Published: 
November 16, 2010
Abstract: 

An autism study by Yale School of Medicine researchers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has identified a pattern of brain activity that may characterize the genetic vulnerability to developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

The team identified three distinct "neural signatures": trait markers -- brain regions with reduced activity in children with ASD and their unaffected siblings; state markers -- brain areas with reduced activity found only in children with autism; and compensatory activity -- enhanced activity seen only in unaffected siblings. The enhanced brain activity may reflect a developmental process by which these children overcome a genetic predisposition to develop ASD.

Testing Autism Drugs in Human Brain Cells

Source: 
MIT Technology Review
Date Published: 
November 12, 2010
Abstract: 

A team from the University of California, San Diego, and the Salk Institute for Biological Studies devised a way to study brain cells from patients with autism, and found a way reverse cellular abnormalities in neurons that have been associated with autism, specifically Rett Syndrome.