Diagnosis

DSM-5 Field Trials in the United States and Canada, Part II: Test-Retest Reliability of Selected Categorical Diagnoses

Source: 
American Journal of Psychiatry
Date Published: 
October 30, 2012
Abstract: 

"OBJECTIVE The DSM-5 Field Trials were designed to obtain precise (standard error <0.1) estimates of the intraclass kappa as a measure of the degree to which two clinicians could independently agree on the presence or absence of selected DSM-5 diagnoses when the same patient was interviewed on separate occasions, in clinical settings, and evaluated with usual clinical interview methods."

Recognition, Referral, Diagnosis, and Management of Adults with Autism: Summary of NICE Guidance

Source: 
BMJ Group
Date Published: 
June 27, 2012

Sensitivity and Specificity of Proposed DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder

Source: 
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Date Published: 
April 2012
Abstract: 

"CONCLUSIONS: Proposed DSM-5 criteria could substantially alter the composition of the autism spectrum. Revised criteria improve specificity but exclude a substantial portion of cognitively able individuals and those with ASDs other than autistic disorder. A more stringent diagnostic rubric holds significant public health ramifications regarding service eligibility and compatibility of historical and future research."

A Multisite Study of the Clinical Diagnosis of Different Autism Spectrum Disorders

Source: 
Archives of General Psychiatry
Date Published: 
March 2012
Abstract: 

"OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the relationships between behavioral phenotypes and clinical diagnoses of different autism spectrum disorders vary across 12 university-based sites.

CONCLUSION: Clinical distinctions among categorical diagnostic subtypes of autism spectrum disorders were not reliable even across sites with well-documented fidelity using standardized diagnostic instruments. Results support the move from existing subgroupings of autism spectrum disorders to dimensional descriptions of core features of social affect and fixated, repetitive behaviors, together with characteristics such as language level and cognitive function."

The Rising Prevalence of Autism: A Prospective Longitudinal Study in the Faroe Islands

Source: 
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Date Published: 
September 2012
Abstract: 

"We have followed up a 2002 population study of autism prevalence in 15-24-year olds in the Faroe Islands. The rate of ASD grew significantly from 0.56% in 2002 to 0.94% in 2009. Although these results are within the range of typical findings from other studies, there were some interesting details. There were-in addition to 43 originally diagnosed cases in 2002-24 newly discovered cases in 2009 and nearly half of them were females. It is possible that unfamiliarity with the clinical presentation of autism in females have played a significant role in this context. There was diagnostic stability for the overall category of ASD over time in the group diagnosed in childhood (7-16) years, but considerable variability as regards diagnostic sub-groupings."

Application of DSM-5 Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder to Three Samples of Children with DSM-IV Diagnoses of Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Source: 
The American Journal of Psychiatry
Date Published: 
October 2012
Abstract: 

"OBJECTIVE: Substantial revisions to the DSM-IV criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been proposed in efforts to increase diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. This study evaluated the proposed DSM-5 criteria for the single diagnostic category of autism spectrum disorder in children with DSM-IV diagnoses of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) and non-PDD diagnoses.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that most children with DSM-IV PDD diagnoses would remain eligible for an ASD diagnosis under the proposed DSM-5 criteria. Compared with the DSM-IV criteria for Asperger's disorder and PDD-NOS, the DSM-5 ASD criteria have greater specificity, particularly when abnormalities are evident from both parents and clinical observation."

Blood-based Gene Expression Signatures of Infants and Toddlers with Autism.

Source: 
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Date Published: 
September 2012
Abstract: 

"OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that onset clinically during the first years of life. ASD risk biomarkers expressed early in life could significantly impact diagnosis and treatment, but no transcriptome-wide biomarker classifiers derived from fresh blood samples from children with autism have yet emerged.

RESULTS: Potential ASD biomarkers were discovered in one-half of the sample and used to build a classifier, with high diagnostic accuracy in the remaining half of the sample."

Infant Neural Sensitivity to Dynamic Eye Gaze Is Associated With Later Emerging Autism

Source: 
Current Biology
Date Published: 
February 21, 2012
Abstract: 

"Autism spectrum disorders (henceforth autism) are diagnosed in around 1% of the population [1]. Familial liability confers risk for a broad spectrum of difficulties including the broader autism phenotype (BAP) [2, 3]. There are currently no reliable predictors of autism in infancy, but characteristic behaviors emerge during the second year, enabling diagnosis after this age [4, 5]. Because indicators of brain functioning may be sensitive predictors, and atypical eye contact is characteristic of the syndrome [6-9] and the BAP [10, 11], we examined whether neural sensitivity to eye gaze during infancy is associated with later autism outcomes [12, 13]. We undertook a prospective longitudinal study of infants with and without familial risk for autism. At 6-10 months, we recorded infants' event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to viewing faces with eye gaze directed toward versus away from the infant [14]. Longitudinal analyses showed that characteristics of ERP components evoked in response to dynamic eye gaze shifts during infancy were associated with autism diagnosed at 36 months. ERP responses to eye gaze may help characterize developmental processes that lead to later emerging autism. Findings also elucidate the mechanisms driving the development of the social brain in infancy."

Toward Brief “Red Flags” for Autism Screening: The Short Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Short Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers in 1,000 Cases and 3,000 Controls

Source: 
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Date Published: 
February 2012
Abstract: 

Ten items were taken from the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT) to develop brief screening tools for ASD. Researchers hope these new measures will help doctors decide whether to refer families for full diagnostic assessments.

A Better Early Blood Test for Autism

Source: 
The Sacramento Bee
Date Published: 
December 5, 2012
Abstract: 

Researchers at Boston's Children Hospital claim a new blood test outperforms existing genetic tests for diagnosing ASD.