Journal of Neuroscience, Zikopoulos and Barbas
A post-mortem investigation measuring features of the different axons traveling beneath the cortical surface. The crux of the study is whether in autism there are changes in axons, "which are the conduit for neural communication." In comparison to control samples, autism brain tissue had fewer large axons connecting regions of the prefrontal cortex to the other areas of cortex. Added to this connection imbalance is a thinner coat of axon insulation, called myelin. These findings may help explain why individuals with autism do not adequately shift attention, engage in repetitive behavior, and avoid social interactions.