Speech

Structure of language pathways differs in non-verbal autism

Source: 
SFARI
Date Published: 
November 14, 2011
Abstract: 

Non-verbal children with autism show structural differences in key language areas of the brain compared with controls, according to a poster presented Saturday at the Society for Neuroscience annual meeting in Washington, D.C.

Children With Autism Benefit from Early, Intensive Therapy

Source: 
Science Daily
Date Published: 
September 28, 2011
Abstract: 

A primary characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is impairments in social-communication skills. Children and adolescents with social-communication problems face difficulty understanding, interacting and relating with others. University of Missouri researchers found that children who receive more intensive therapy to combat these impairments, especially at early ages, achieve the best outcomes.

A Systematic Review of Early Intensive Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Source: 
Pediatrics
Date Published: 
April 2011
Year Published: 
2011

Researchers at Vanderbilt University reviewed the effectiveness of early intervention programs for children aged 12 and younger with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Overall, the strength of the evidence ranged from insufficient to low. Studies performed at the University of California Los Angeles /Lovaas-based interventions and variants reported clinically significant gains in language and cognitive skills in some children, as did 1 randomized control trial of an early intensive developmental intervention approach (the Early Start Denver Model). Data suggests that subgroups of children displayed more prominent gains across studies, but common characteristics of those who experienced greater gains are not understood. Studies into the effectiveness of Early Intervention programs demonstrated some progress in cognitive performance, language skills, and adaptive behavior skills in some young children with ASDs, but there is limited literature available on the topic.

A Systematic Review of Secretin for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Source: 
Pediatrics
Date Published: 
April 2011
Year Published: 
2011

Krishnaswami et al. Researchers at Vanderbilt University found that secretin, a medical treatment for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) that was popularized in the 1990s, is ineffective in the treatment of ASDs. Evidence from seven randomized controlled trials suggests that secretin does not effectively treat the symptoms of ASDs, which include language and communication impairment, symptom severity, and cognitive and social deficits. Furthermore, no study conducted has found significant improvement in terms of language, cognition, or autistic symptoms when compared with placebo. The Vanderbilt researchers conclude that secretin does not have clear benefit. Additionally, since there is significant evidence of lack of impact in treating ASDs, they believe that further secretin studies should not be conducted.

New Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers from 12 to 47 Months of Age

Source: 
J Autism Developmental Disorders, Kim et al.
Date Published: 
March 2011
Year Published: 
2011

The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised is a tool clinician’s use for the diagnosis of a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The diagnostic algorithms of the evaluative tool were altered to improve sensitivity and specificity compared to the previous algorithm.

Post-High School Service Use Among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

Source: 
Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, Shattuck et al.
Date Published: 
February 2011
Year Published: 
2011

Researchers conducted a telephone survey to determine the rates of service use among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) during their first few years after high school. Rates of service ranged from 9.1% for speech therapy to 41.9% for case management. 39.1% of youths with an ASD represented by the survey received no services. The adjusted odds of no service were higher among African American participants and those with low incomes. The adjusted odds of case management were lower among youths with high functional skills and those with low incomes. The researchers concluded that rates of service disengagement are high after exiting high school. Furthermore, due to the disparities by race and socioeconomic status indicate a need for targeted outreach and services.

Gene Discovery Supports Link Between Handedness And Language-Related Disorders

Source: 
Medical News Today
Date Published: 
November 8, 2010
Abstract: 

Scientists at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, have identified a genetic variant which influences whether a person with dyslexia is more skilled with either the left or right hand. The finding identifies a novel gene for handedness and provides the first genetic evidence to support a much speculated link between handedness and a language-related disorder.

Siblings of Autistic Children May Have Some Autism Related Traits, Study Says

Source: 
LA Times
Date Published: 
October 11, 2010
Abstract: 

Scientists at the Washington University School of Medicine have uncovered more evidence of a genetic basis for autism. Reviewing surveys collected from more than 1,000 families with autistic kids, they discovered that siblings of autistic children who have not been diagnosed with the disease often exhibit mild traits of autism, including speech delays.

Language Delays Found in Siblings of Children with Autism

Source: 
Medical News Today
Date Published: 
October 3, 2010
Abstract: 

A new study, led by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, found mild traits, not strong enough to provoke a diagnosis of autism, seem to be present in the siblings of affected children at significantly higher rates than seen in the general population.

Siblings of children with autism have more frequent language delays and other subtle characteristics of the disorder than previously understood. Girls also may be mildly affected more often than recognized in the past.

Language as a Window into Sociability

Source: 
Science Daily
Date Published: 
August 13, 2010
Abstract: 

People with Williams syndrome-known for their indiscriminate friendliness and ease with strangers-process spoken language differently from people with autism spectrum disorders-characterized by social withdrawal and isolation-found researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies.