Research by Topic: Mice Study

New Mouse Model Mimics Brain Abnormalities in Autism

Published October 6, 2014 in Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative

Mice with mutations in the autism-linked gene WDFY3 have enlarged brains reminiscent of those seen in some children with autism, finds a study published in Nature Communications. The brain overgrowth begins in the womb, the study found. WDFY3 plays a role in autophagy, a process that rids cells of damaged or unneeded parts. Mouse embryos with two copies of the mutant gene have enlarged brains and an excess of immature neurons that divide faster than usual. They also have misdirected patches of neurons. Similar changes have been observed in people with autism.

http://sfari.org/news-and-opinion/news/2014/new-mouse-model-mimics-brain-abnormalities-in-autism

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Reward Affects Motor Function in Rett

Published January 10, 2014 in Simons Foundation Autism Research Institute

The motor problems seen in Rett syndrome may be the result of deficits in a pathway that mediates reward in the striatum, a brain region that coordinates movement, according to a study published in Brain Structure and Function. Studies have shown that loss of MeCP2 in the front of the brain is sufficient to lead to Rett-like symptoms in mice. The forebrain includes the striatum, which integrates information from other brain regions to help plan and coordinate movement. The new study found that mice that model Rett syndrome have significantly less dopamine a chemical messenger that mediates reward in the striatum than controls do. The study suggests that changes in dopamine levels influence neural circuits in the striatum that regulate motor function.

http://sfari.org/news-and-opinion/in-brief/2014/molecular-mechanisms-reward-affects-motor-function-in-rett

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SHANK3 Duplication Leads to Hyperactivity in Mice

Published December 17, 2013 in Simons Foundation Autism Research Institute

Mice with a duplication of SHANK3, a gene with strong links to autism, are hyperactive and manic, reports a study published in Nature.The mice produce about 50 percent more SHANK3 protein than their genetically typical counterparts, the scientists found, much like people with an extra copy of the gene do. The mice also show signs of hyperactivity. The team observed on further testing that the SHANK3 mice show behaviors typically seen in people going through manic episodes. The mice are easier to startle, eat more, have disrupted sleeping patterns and show heightened sensitivity to amphetamine. The mice also have spontaneous seizures.

http://sfari.org/news-and-opinion/in-brief/2013/genetics-shank3-duplication-leads-to-hyperactivity-in-mice

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Gut Microbes Linked to Autismlike Symptoms in Mice

Published December 5, 2013 in Science Magazine

More information has come about about the gut microbes study in Cell. “I’d want to know more about the mechanism by which the bacteria altered behavior in the mice before beginning to translate the findings to humans” says Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom, a neuroscientist at Rutgers University and member of the ASF Scientific Advisory Board.

http://news.sciencemag.org/biology/2013/12/gut-microbes-linked-autismlike-symptoms-mice

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Researchers Can Now Track Multiple Mice Simultaneously

Published October 16, 2013 in Simons Foundation Autism Research Institute

Researchers have developed software that can automatically track and catalog the behavior of up to four mice at once. Mice are often used for autism research because they are easy to manipulate genetically. This new method, which involves using images taken by a heat-sensing camera and a new software algorithm, makes collecting research more efficient.

http://sfari.org/news-and-opinion/toolbox/2013/automated-tool-spies-on-multiple-mice-simultaneously

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New Behavioral Test Uncovers Autism Mouse’s Stubbornness

Published October 2, 2013 in Simons Foundation Autism Research Institute

Researchers have developed a new test that reveals complex repetitive behaviors in BTBR mice, a mouse strain with features resembling those of autism, according to a study published in the Journal of Neuroscience Methods. Repetitive behavior is common in autism, and usually comes in two forms: repetitive actions, such as hand flapping or rocking, and higher-order symptoms, such as an insistence on sameness, or restricted interests. This second form is difficult to produce in mice, but these researchers believe they have been able to do it.

http://sfari.org/news-and-opinion/toolbox/2013/new-behavioral-test-uncovers-autism-mouses-stubbornness

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Autisms Unexpected Link to Cancer Gene

Published August 11, 2013 in The New York Times

Researchers have recently discovered that two seemingly unrelated conditions, autism and cancer, share an unexpected connection. Some people with autism have specific mutated cancer or tumor genes that scientists believe caused their autism. While this does not apply to all people with autism, just the ones with the mutated gene, it is a very illuminating discovery in the field.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/13/health/autisms-unexpected-link-to-cancer-gene.html?pagewanted=all

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Cholesterol connection to Rett Syndrome

Published July 28, 2013 in Nature Genetics

Professor Monica Justice has written a study on a connection between cholesterol and Rett Syndrome. Statin drugs, known to lower cholesterol, were shown to increase mobility, overall health scores, and lifespan in mice with Rett Syndrome.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=A+suppressor+screen+in+Mecp2+mutant+mice+implicates+cholesterol+metabolism+in+Rett+syndrome

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FMR1 Knockout Mice Observed to have Hyperactive Neural Firing Rates

Published June 2, 2013 in Nature: Neuroscience

Researchers at UCLA observed hyperactive firing rates in the brains of FMR1 knockout mice; mice engineered to have symptoms similar to those in ASD and Fragile X syndrome.

http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nn.3415.html

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Increasing the Gut Bacteria In Mice That Lack Them Helps Increase Their Sociability with Familiar Mice

Published May 21, 2013 in Molecular Psychiatry

A new study finds that increasing the gut bacteria populations in mice that lack them helps to increase their sociability. The increase in sociability is mainly limited to familiar mice but the study does show support for the theory of a connection between the gut and autism in certain cases.

http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/mp201365a.html

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Letting a Typical Mouse Judge Whether Mouse Social Interactions are Atypical

Published February 21, 2013 in Autism Research

This interesting preliminary study examined whether typical mice could recognize atypical social behavior in ASD mouse models. Wild-type mouse ‘judges’ preferred to be in chambers with other typical mice rather than socially atypical mice, suggesting that typical mice can distinguish mice displaying autism-like behavior from controls.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23436806?dopt=Abstract

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SFARI Gene

Published February 21, 2013 in SFARI

SFARI Gene is an integrated resource for the autism research community. It is a publicly available, curated, web-based, searchable database for autism research. This resource is built on information extracted from the studies on molecular genetics and biology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The genetic information includes data from linkage and association studies, cytogenetic abnormalities, and specific mutations associated with ASD.

https://gene.sfari.org/autdb/Welcome.do

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Astroglial FMRP-Dependent Translational Down-regulation of mGluR5 Underlies Glutamate Transporter GLT1 Dysregulation in the Fragile X Mouse

Published February 7, 2013 in Human Molecular Genetics

This paper discusses the role fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) plays in protein expression in astrocytes, and suggests that FMRP loss in astrocytes may contribute to the development of fragile X.

http://hmg.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/02/07/hmg.ddt055.abstract

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Maternal Autism-Associated IgG Antibodies Delay Development and Produce Anxiety In A Mouse Gestational Transfer Model

Published November 15, 2012 in Journal of Neuroimmunology

“A murine passive transfer model system was employed to ascertain the effects of gestational exposure to a single, intravenous dose of purified, brain-reactive IgG antibodies from individual mothers of children with autism (MAU) or mothers with typically developing children (MTD). Growth and behavioral outcomes in offspring were measured from postnatal days 8 to 65 in each group. Comparisons revealed alterations in early growth trajectories, significantly impaired motor and sensory development, and increased anxiety. This report demonstrates for the first time the effects of a single, low dose gestational exposure of IgG derived from individual MAU on their offspring’s physical and social development.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22951357

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SFARI Reviews Mouse Models Used in Autism Genetics Research

Published September 25, 2012 in Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative

New genetic variants that increase susceptibility to autism are emerging at a rapid pace from scans for copy number variants (CNVs) deletions or duplications of DNA segments and next-generation sequencing. Given the profusion of data, it seems timely to assess the availability and usefulness of mouse models in which to study these genetic risk factors.

http://sfari.org/news-and-opinion/directors-columns/2012/pick-of-the-litter?utm_source=Master+List+-+Weekly+Newsletter&utm_campaign=a27c10c784-SFARI_Newsletter_120925&utm_medium=email

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Rare Autism Form May Improve With Diet Change, Study Says

Published September 6, 2012 in Science

Researchers from the University of California at San Diego published in Science that a rare form of autism tied to seizures and mental retardation may be treatable with a simple diet change or supplement.

http://www.businessweek.com/news/2012-09-06/rare-autism-form-may-improve-with-diet-change-study-says

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Autistic-like Behaviour and Cerebellar Dysfunction in Purkinje cell Tsc1 Mutant Mice.

Published August 30, 2012 in Nature

Researchers found molecular basis for a cerebellar contribution to cognitive disorders such as autism.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22763451

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Research shows gene defect’s role in autism-like behavior

Published August 13, 2012 in PLoS ONE

Scientists affiliated with the UC Davis MIND Institute have discovered how a defective gene causes brain changes that lead to the atypical social behavior characteristic of autism. The research offers a potential target for drugs to treat the condition.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-08/uoc--rsg080912.php

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Modeling an Autism Risk Factor in Mice Leads to Permanent Immune Dysregulation

Published July 31, 2012 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

“Increasing evidence highlights a role for the immune system in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as immune dysregulation is observed in the brain, periphery, and gastrointestinal tract of ASD individuals. Furthermore, maternal infection (maternal immune activation, MIA) is a risk factor for ASD. Modeling this risk factor in mice yields offspring with the cardinal behavioral and neuropathological symptoms of human ASD.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22802640

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Molecular Mechanisms: Autism Gene Regulates Neuron Shape

Published July 31, 2012 in Simons Foundation Austism Research Initiative

Scientists at MIT have found that TAOK2, a gene in the autism-associated chromosomal region, is part of a signaling pathway that builds neuronal connections during development.

http://sfari.org/news-and-opinion/in-brief/2012/molecular-mechanisms-autism-gene-regulates-neuron-shape

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Vanderbilt University Researchers Examine Oxytocin and Serotonin Systems as Biomarkers for Autism

Published May 26, 2012 in http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22721594.1

Vanderbilt University researchers examine oxytocin and serotonin systems as biomarkers for autism spectrum disorders.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22721594.1

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Autistic-like behaviours and hyperactivity in mice lacking ProSAP1/Shank2.

Published April 29, 2012 in PubMed

It is proposed that appropriate therapies for autism spectrum disorders are to be carefully matched to the underlying synaptopathic phenotype.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22699619

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Negative Allosteric Modulation of the mGluR5 Receptor Reduces Repetitive Behaviors and Rescues Social Deficits in Mouse Models of Autism

Published April 25, 2012 in Science Translational Medicine

Using a mouse model with behaviors relevant to the three diagnostic behavioral symptoms of autism, researchers used a genetic approach to reduce repetitive behaviors and partially reverse the striking lack of sociability in these mice.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Negative+allosteric+modulation+of+the+mGluR5+receptor+reduces+repetitive+behaviors+and+rescues+social+deficits+in+mouse+models+of+autism

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Automated Imaging Inroduced To Greatly Speed Whole-Brain Mapping Efforts

Published January 17, 2012 in Medical News Today

A new technology developed by neuroscientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) transforms the way highly detailed anatomical images can be made of whole brains.

Automated Imaging Inroduced To Greatly Speed Whole-Brain Mapping Efforts

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Absence of CNTNAP2 Leads to Epilepsy, Neuronal Migration Abnormalities, and Core Autism-Related Deficits

Published September 30, 2011 in Cell

A new mouse model of autism, created by eliminating a gene strongly associated with the disorder in humans, shows promise for understanding the biology that underlies ASD and testing new treatments. By eliminating the CNTNAP2 gene (contactin associated protein-like 2), researchers were able to create mice with behaviors that closely mimicked those of its human […]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21962519

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MIT Researchers Recreate Autism in Mice

Published March 20, 2011 in Medical News Today

By mutating a single gene, researchers at MIT and Duke have produced mice with two of the most common traits of autism – compulsive, repetitive behavior and avoidance of social interaction. In this study, the researchers focused on one of the most common of those genes, known as shank3. Shank3 is found in synapses – the junctions between brain cells that allow them to communicate with each other. Feng, who joined MIT and the McGovern Institute last year, began studying shank3 a few years ago because he thought that synaptic proteins might contribute to autism and similar brain disorders, such as obsessive compulsive disorder.

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/219485.php

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Gene Mutation is Linked to Autism-Like Symptoms in Mice, Reseachers Find

Published February 24, 2010 in Science Daily

When a gene implicated in human autism is disabled in mice, the rodents show learning problems and obsessive, repetitive behaviors, researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have found. The researchers also report that a drug affecting a specific type of nerve function reduced the obsessive behavior in the animals, suggesting a potential way to treat repetitive behaviors in humans

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/02/100223174547.htm

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