Brain Imaging

A Stable Pattern of EEG Spectral Coherence Distinguishes Children with Autism From Neuro-typical Controls - A Large Case Control Study

Source: 
BMC Medicine
Date Published: 
June 26, 2012
Abstract: 

"BACKGROUND: The autism rate has recently increased to 1 in 100 children. Genetic studies demonstrate poorly understood complexity. Environmental factors apparently also play a role. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrate increased brain sizes and altered connectivity. Electroencephalogram (EEG) coherence studies confirm connectivity changes. However, genetic-, MRI- and/or EEG-based diagnostic tests are not yet available. The varied study results likely reflect methodological and population differences, small samples and, for EEG, lack of attention to group-specific artifact.

RESULTS: Total sample PCA [principal components analysis] of coherence data identified 40 factors which explained 50.8% of the total population variance. For the 2- to 12-year-olds, the 40 factors showed highly significant group differences (P < 0.0001). Ten randomly generated split half replications demonstrated high-average classification success (C, 88.5%; ASD, 86.0%). Still higher success was obtained in the more restricted age sub-samples using the jackknifing technique: 2- to 4-year-olds (C, 90.6%; ASD, 98.1%); 4- to 6-year-olds (C, 90.9%; ASD 99.1%); and 6- to 12-year-olds (C, 98.7%; ASD, 93.9%). Coherence loadings demonstrated reduced short-distance and reduced, as well as increased, long-distance coherences for the ASD-groups, when compared to the controls. Average spectral loading per factor was wide (10.1 Hz)."

Functional magnetic resonance imaging of autism spectrum disorders

Source: 
Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Date Published: 
December 10, 2012
Abstract: 

Dr. Gabriel Dichter presents a new review of fMRI research in ASD, noting common themes of atypical activation and functional connectivity in the brain.

Neural Mechanisms of Improvements in Social Motivation After Pivotal Response Treatment: Two Case Studies

Source: 
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Date Published: 
October 27, 2012
Abstract: 

Researchers find increased activation to social stimuli in brain regions involved in social perception in two children with ASD after pivotal response treatment (PRT).

Nature Outlook: Autism Now Available Online

Source: 
Nature
Date Published: 
October 31, 2012
Abstract: 

Sponsored in part by ASF, the new Nature Outlook supplement on autism features articles on genetics, adulthood, brain imaging, diagnosis and more.

Early Behavioral Intervention is Associated with Normalized Brain Activity in Young Children with Autism

Source: 
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Date Published: 
August 31, 2012
Abstract: 

This randomized trial associated ESDM with normalized brain activity and behavioral improvements in young children with ASD.

Atypical Activation During the Embedded Figures Task as a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Endophenotype of Autism

Source: 
Brain
Date Published: 
October 11, 2012
Abstract: 

This study uncovers a possible fMRI endophenotype of autism, showing that compared to typically developing controls with no family history of ASD, adolescents with autism and non-autistic siblings had atypical patterns of brain activation during the Embedded Figures Task.

Unreliable Evoked Responses in Autism

Source: 
Neuron
Date Published: 
September 20, 2012
Abstract: 

This imaging study led by Carnegie Mellon researchers suggests adults with autism have unreliable neural responses when presented with basic sensory information.

University says findings could bring us closer to understanding the connection between brain and behavior in autism. See the press release here: http://www.cmu.edu/news/stories/archives/2012/september/sept19_autisticn...

Announcing the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange, a Database of Brain Scans from Over 15 Medical and Research Institutions Worldwide

Source: 
Enhanced Online News
Date Published: 
September 24, 2012
Abstract: 

Researchers officially announce the creation of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange, a database of previously collected brain scans from over 15 medical and research institutions worldwide. The founders aim to advance scientific understanding of ASD through this data sharing initiative.

Researchers at Children's Hospital Boston Identify Brain Activity Patterns Specific to Children with Autism

Source: 
Time
Date Published: 
June 26, 2012
Abstract: 

Study from Children's Hospital Boston uses EEG to identify specific brain activity patterns in children with autism.