Mothers

Those Kids

Source: 
Huffington Post
Date Published: 
December 15, 2009
Abstract: 

Disgruntled mother writes about her frustrations with the use of the phrase "Those Kids" by community members to describe autistic children like her son.

Autism Treatment: Success Stories More Persuasive To Some than Hard Data

Source: 
Chicago Tribune
Date Published: 
November 22, 2009

Parents often swear their children with autism get better while they are undergoing alternative therapies. Pitches from doctors providing alternative treatments are difficult to resist, he said. But in evaluating a therapy, the challenge is determining how much, if any, of the progress can be credited to the treatment. Some parents are beginning to realize their child was progressing despite the use of alternative treatments.

California Dept of Health Publishes Study on Autism and Maternal/Paternal Age

Source: 
American Journal of Epidemiology
Date Published: 
October 5, 2009
Abstract: 

Reviewing a larger population than in any other study of its kind, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) has found that as parents age their risk of giving birth to a child with autism increases modestly. Published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, the new CDPH study shows that for each 10-year increase in a mother’s age, the risk of autism increased by about 38 percent. For each 10-year increase in a father’s age, the risk of autism increased by about 22 percent.

Autism: Maternally derived antibodies specific for fetal brain proteins

Source: 
Neurotoxicology, Braunschweig, Ashwood, et al
Date Published: 
2008
Year Published: 
2008

Autism is a profound disorder of neurodevelopment with poorly understood biological origins. A potential role for maternal autoantibodies in the etiology of some cases of autism has been proposed in previous studies To investigate this hypothesis, maternal plasma antibodies against human fetal and adult brain proteins were analyzed by western blot in 61 mothers of children with autistic disorder and 102 controls matched for maternal age and birth year (62 mothers of typically developing children (TD) and 40 mothers of children with non-ASD developmental delays (DD)). We observed reactivity to two protein bands at approximately 73kDa and 37kDa in plasma from 7 of 61 (11.5%) mothers of children with autism (AU) against fetal but not adult brain, which was not noted in either control group (TD; 0/62 p=0.0061 and DD; 0/40 p=0.0401). Further, the presence of reactivity to these two bands correlated with a diagnosis of behavioral regression in the child when compared to the TD (p=0.0019) and DD (0.0089) groups. Individual reactivity to the 37kDa band was observed significantly more often in the AU population compared with TD (p=0.0086) and DD (p=0.002) mothers, yielding a 5.69-fold odds ratio (95% confidence interval 2.09 - 15.51) associated with this band. The presence of these antibodies in the plasma of some mothers of children with autism, as well as the differential findings between mothers of children with early onset and regressive autism may suggest an association between the transfer of IgG autoantibodies during early neurodevelopment and the risk of developing of autism in some children.

Stereotypes and Hyperactivity in Rhesus Monkeys Exposed to IgG from Mothers of Children with Autism

Source: 
Brain Behavior Immunology, Martin, Ashwood, Braunschweig, Cabanlit, Van de Water, Amaral
Date Published: 
2008

One proposed cause of ASD is exposure of the fetal brain to maternal autoantibodies during pregnancy [Dalton, P., Deacon, R., Blamire, A., Pike, M., McKinlay, I., Stein, J., Styles, P., Vincent, A., 2003. Maternal neuronal antibodies associated with autism and a language disorder. Ann. Neurol. 53, 533-537]. To provide evidence for this hypothesis, four rhesus monkeys were exposed prenatally to human IgG collected from mothers of multiple children diagnosed with ASD. Four control rhesus monkeys were exposed to human IgG collected from mothers of multiple typically developing children. Five additional monkeys were untreated controls. Monkeys were observed in a variety of behavioral paradigms involving unique social situations. Behaviors were scored by trained observers and overall activity was monitored with actimeters. Rhesus monkeys gestationally exposed to IgG class antibodies from mothers of children with ASD consistently demonstrated increased whole-body stereotypies across multiple testing paradigms. These monkeys were also hyperactive compared to controls. Treatment with IgG purified from mothers of typically developing children did not induce stereotypical or hyperactive behaviors. These findings support the potential for an autoimmune etiology in a subgroup of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. This research raises the prospect of prenatal evaluation for neurodevelopmental risk factors and the potential for preventative therapeutics.

Association of Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders and Loss of Family Income

Source: 
Pediatrics, Montes & Halterman
Date Published: 
2008

Childhood autism is associated with a substantial loss of annual household income. This likely places a significant burden on families in the face of additional out-of-pocket expenditures. Both having a child with autism spectrum disorder and having a child with other disabilities were associated with decreased odds of living in a higher income household after controlling for parental education, type of family, parental age, location of the household, and minority ethnicity. The average loss of annual income associated with having a child with autism spectrum disorder was $6200 or 14% of their reported income.

Identifying autism Loci and Genes by Tracing Recent Shared Ancestry

Source: 
Science, Morrow, Yoo, et al
Date Published: 
2008

To find inherited causes of autism-spectrum disorders, we studied families in which parents share ancestors, enhancing the role of inherited factors. We mapped several loci, some containing large, inherited, homozygous deletions that are likely mutations. The largest deletions implicated genes, including PCDH10 (protocadherin 10) and DIA1 (deleted in autism1, or c3orf58), whose level of expression changes in response to neuronal activity, a marker of genes involved in synaptic changes that underlie learning. A subset of genes, including NHE9 (Na+/H+ exchanger 9), showed additional potential mutations in patients with unrelated parents. Our findings highlight the utility of "homozygosity mapping" in heterogeneous disorders like autism but also suggest that defective regulation of gene expression after neural activity may be a mechanism common to seemingly diverse autism mutations.

Antibodies Against Fetal Brain in Sera of Mothers with Autistic Children

Source: 
Journal of Neuroimmunology, Singer, Morris, Gause, Gillin, Crawford, Zimmerman

Serum antibodies in 100 mothers of children with autistic disorder (MCAD) were compared to 100 age-matched mothers with unaffected children (MUC) using as antigenic substrates human and rodent fetal and adult brain tissues, GFAP, and MBP. MCAD had significantly more individuals with Western immunoblot bands at 36 kDa in human fetal and rodent embryonic brain tissue. The density of bands was greater in fetal brain at 61 kDa. MCAD plus developmental regression had greater reactivity against human fetal brain at 36 and 39 kDa. Data support a possible complex association between genetic/metabolic/environmental factors and the placental transfer of maternal antibodies in autism.