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Research by Topic: Young Adult
Caregiver Burden as People with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder Transition into Adolescence and Adulthood in the United KingdomPublished September 8, 2015 in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
This study conducted an observational study of 192 families caring for a young person (aged 14 to 24 years) with a childhood diagnosis of ASD or ADHD (n = 101 and n = 91, respectively) in the United Kingdom. A modified stress-appraisal model was used to investigate the correlates of caregiver burden as a function of family background (parental education), primary stressors (symptoms), primary appraisal (need), and resources (use of services).
Parents of adult children with autism are creating job opportunities for their kids that cater to their strengths. It can be very difficult for someone with autism to find employment that is matched to his or her unique needs, but some organizations, such as Extraordinary Ventures in Chapel Hill, NC are doing just that.
A study in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry notes that young adults with autism spectrum disorders are experiencing particular difficulty in successfully transitioning into employment. Approximately one half of young adults with an ASD have worked for pay outside the home in the first eight years following high school. The study concludes that further research is needed to determine strategies for improving outcomes as these young adults transition into adulthood.
Dr. Peter Gerhardt of the McCarton School joined us for a live chat. He answered several questions about employment, safety and sexual education in relation to teenagers and adults with autism.
The Autism Matters podcast series aims to showcase the latest research published in the journal Autism in a way that is accessible, easy to understand and has real world relevance. The podcasts are aimed at a broad audience, including academics, researchers, students, clinicians, journalists, policy makers, individuals with autism and their families, and anyone interested in autism spectrum disorders.
Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results of an 18-month Feasibility StudyPublished April 26, 2013 in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
New findings from a small pilot study suggest cognitive enhancement therapy is a feasible and effective intervention for cognitive impairments in verbal adults with ASD. Adult participants were highly satisfied with the therapy and treatment attendance was high, indicating their willingness to participate in and commit to an intervention that they considered useful.
In an attempt to raise awareness of the unique obstacles faced by young adults with ASD, researchers compared their social experiences with the experiences of young adults who received special education services for intellectual disability, emotional disturbance, or learning disability and found young adults with ASD experienced significantly more social isolation.
Two recent studies have linked mind-blindness to atypical patterns of brain activity in people with ASD.
Bridges and Barriers to Successful Transitioning as Perceived by Adolescents and Young Adults With Asperger SyndromePublished March 28, 2013 in Journal of Pediatric Nursing
This thematic content analysis examined the expectations, and perceived facilitators of and barriers to transition to community as reported by adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome.
With the number of people seeking ASD evaluations in adulthood on the rise, researchers sought to investigate how DSM-5 criteria would fare in a diagnostic clinic for adults with minimal intellectual disability. Compared to ICD-10R and DSM-IV-TR, DSM-5 specificity was good but sensitivity was poor: 44% of adults who met ICD-10R ASD criteria and 22% who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for Asperger syndrome or autistic disorder would not qualify for a DSM-5 ASD diagnosis.
Oxytocin and Vasopressin in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Sex Differences and Associations With SymptomsPublished February 14, 2013 in Autism Research and Treatment
Following positive results of treatment studies using oxytocin (OT) and evidence of genetic variations in the OT-arginine vasopressin (AVP) pathway in individuals with ASD, a new study from UC Berkeley further examines the involvement of OT and AVP in ASD. Results suggest levels of OT in individuals with ASD may not be as low as previously believed. Moreover, the researchers found significant gender differences, including higher levels of OT in girls and higher levels of AVP in boys.
“Little is known about accessibility to health care transition (HCT) services for youth with autism spectrum disorder. This study expands our understanding by examining the receipt of HCT services in youth with ASD compared with youth with other special health care needs.”
Brief Report: Is Cognitive Rehabilitation Needed in Verbal Adults with Autism? Insights from Initial Enrollment in a Trial of Cognitive Enhancement TherapyPublished February 5, 2013 in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Early results from this pilot trial of cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) indicate that despite above-average intelligence, verbal adults with ASD can have significantly impaired neurocognition and social cognition. The authors suggest CET, which is designed to remediate both social and non-social deficits through computer-based neurocognitive training, could be useful for cognitive rehabilitation in this population.
Familiarity Breeds Support: Speech-language Pathologists Perceptions of Bullying of Students with Autism Spectrum DisordersPublished January 31, 2013 in Journal of Communication Disorders
According to this study, school-based speech language pathologists may be an untapped resource in the fight against bullying of children with ASD.
Not surprisingly, research shows that when the interests of adolescents with ASDs are incorporated into school activities, these students display higher levels of engagement and are more likely to initiate interactions with their typical peers.
Results from this preliminary study suggest that an interactive virtual reality game can improve social communication skills in teens with ASD.
This is the first randomized controlled trial demonstrating the efficacy of mindfulness-based therapy for adults with ASD. Participants who received MBT benefited from the therapy, showing less depression, anxiety and rumination, and more positive affect.
According to this recent meta-analysis of fMRI studies, autism-related changes in brain activity may continue to develop with age.
This article reviews the current literature regarding a range of quality of life outcomes of aging adults with ASD. Studies that have addressed life expectancy, comorbid physical and mental health issues, ASD symptomatology, and social, residential, and vocational outcomes are reviewed.
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Participation Among College Students with an Autism Spectrum DisorderPublished November 1, 2012 in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Findings suggest that students with an ASD had the highest STEM participation rates although their college enrollment rate was the third lowest among 11 disability categories and students in the general population. Educational policy implications are discussed.
Evaluation of an Activities of Daily Living Scale for Adolescents and Adults with Developmental DisabilitiesPublished October 17, 2012 in Disability and Health Journal
ASF Grantee Matthew Maenner and colleagues developed the Waisman Activities of Daily Living (W-ADL) Scale to measure daily living skills of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. The scale is a free and efficient tool for surveys and epidemiological research.
Researchers find that women and men with autism have comparable impairments in social cognitive functioning, but performance on non-social cognitive tasks depends on gender.
In this new review of intervention studies targeting social impairment in autism, authors encourage researchers to design new studies that: evaluate ingredients of effective interventions (e.g., required dose for therapeutic effect); include better outcome measures that can show that meaningful improvements have happened (e.g., spontaneous social initiations; sustained interactions); and include underserved and underrepresented participant groups, such as children with comorbidities, non-English speaking children, and minimally verbal children.
Nearly half of U.S. children with an autism spectrum disorder are victims of bullying, a new study from University of California at Berkeley finds.
A new study from Vanderbilt and published in Pediatrics finds there’s little science to backup the efficacy of current methods used to help young adults with these neurodevelopmental disorders segue into the workforce.
This article addresses an important and barely researched topic: what happens to children with autism spectrum disorders when they grow old.