Genetic variations on SETD5 underlying autistic conditions
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the number of identified ASD-related genes have increased in recent years. The SETD5 gene encodes a SET-containing-domain 5 protein, a likely reader enzyme. Genetic evidences suggest that SETD5 malfunction contributes to ASD phenotype, such as on intellectual disability (ID) and facial dysmorphism. In this review, we mapped the clinical phenotypes of individuals carrying mutations on the SETD5 gene that are associated with ASD and other chromatinopathies (mutation in epigenetic modifiers that leads to the development of neurodevelopmental disorders such as ASD). After a detailed systematic literature review and analysis of public disease-related databank, we found so far 42 individuals carrying mutations on the SETD5 gene, with 23.8% presenting autistic-like features. Furthermore, most of mutations occurred between positions 9,480,000-9,500,000 bp on chromosome 3 (3p25.3) at the SETD5 gene locus. In all males, mutations in SETD5 presented high penetrance, while in females the clinical phenotype seems more variable with two reported cases showing normal female carriers and not presenting ASD or any ID-like symptoms. At the molecular level, SETD5 interacts with proteins of PAF1C and N-CoR complexes, leading to a possible involvement with chromatin modification pathway, which plays important roles for brain development. Together, we propose that mutations on the SETD5 gene could lead to a new syndromic condition in males, which is linked to 3p25 syndrome, and can leads to ASD-related intellectual disability and facial dysmorphism. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 500-518, 2018.
Keywords: SETD5 gene; SETD5 syndrome; autism spectrum disorder; genetic variants; intellectual disability; syndromic autism.