searchers are increasingly relying on online methods for data collection, including for qualitative research involving interviews and focus groups. In this letter, we alert autism researchers to a possible threat to data integrity in such studies: “scammer” participants, who may be posing as autistic people and/or parents of autistic children in research studies, presumably for financial gain. Here, we caution qualitative autism researchers to be vigilant of potential scammer participants in their online studies and invite a broader discussion about the implications of such fraudulent acts.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous disorder (1, 2) and it affects 1 out of 36 children (3). Due to its heterogeneity, the causes of ASD are still poorly understood and scientific research is now focused on the early identification of bio-behavioral markers to anticipate the age of diagnosis (4). Making an early diagnosis has positive implications in terms of implementation of timely evidence-based interventions and, consequently, better outcomes (5). In the complex arena of interventions for ASD, some of them are evidence-based, while others (a) are proposed without scientific basis (6), or (b) they have not yet completed the necessary steps to move from basic research to large-scale clinical application but are transferred to clinical practice. Regarding option b, in recent years, we have witnessed a worrying increase in institutes that proposing to families to treat ASD with stem cells from various sources, including those obtained from cord blood (7). The alarming aspect of this potential therapeutic proposal is the promise of significant clinical improvements in children who undergo this treatment. These institutes, which are often located in countries with low medical standards, are not proposing a research trial but the use of stem cells as a therapeutic option already validated by basic research. However, to date, can we say that the use of stem cells is an evidence-based treatment? The answer is no, and we will try in the following lines to explain the reasons for this negative answer.
Emerging evidence suggests that the higher prevalence of autism in individuals who are assigned male than assigned female at birth results from both biological factors and identification biases. Autistic individuals who are assigned female at birth (AFAB) and those who are gender diverse experience health disparities and clinical inequity, including late or missed diagnosis and inadequate support. In this Viewpoint, an international panel of clinicians, scientists, and community members with lived experiences of autism reviewed the challenges in identifying autism in individuals who are AFAB and proposed clinical and research directions to promote the health, development, and wellbeing of autistic AFAB individuals. The recognition challenges stem from the interplay between cognitive differences and nuanced or different presentations of autism in some AFAB individuals; expectancy, gender-related, and autism-related biases held by clinicians; and social determinants. We recommend that professional development for clinicians be supported by health-care systems, professional societies, and governing bodies to improve equitable access to assessment and earlier identification of autism in AFAB individuals. Autistic AFAB individuals should receive tailored support in education, identity development, health care, and social and professional sense of belonging
Abnormal neuronal and synapse growth is a core pathology resulting from deficiency of the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), but molecular links underlying the excessive synthesis of key synaptic proteins remain incompletely defined. We find that basal brain levels of the growth-suppressor let-7 microRNA (miRNA) family are selectively lowered in FMRP-deficient mice and activity-dependent let-7 downregulation is abrogated. Primary let-7 miRNA transcripts are not altered in FMRP-deficiency and posttranscriptional misregulation occurs downstream of MAPK pathway induction and elevation of Lin28a, a let-7 biogenesis inhibitor. Neonatal restoration of brain let-7 miRNAs corrects hallmarks of FMRP-deficiency, including dendritic spine overgrowth and social and cognitive behavioral deficits, in adult mice. Blockade of MAPK hyperactivation normalizes let-7 miRNA levels in both brain and peripheral blood plasma from Fmr1 KO mice. These results implicate dysregulated let-7 miRNA biogenesis in the pathogenesis
of FMRP-deficiency, and highlight let-7 miRNA-based strategies for future biomarker and therapeutic development.
Keywords: Fragile X Syndrome, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, let-7, microRNA biogenesis, microRNA, Lin28, autism spectrum disorder, protein synthesis, gene expression, dendritic spine, behavioral deficits
Patched domain-containing 1 (PTCHD1) is a well-established susceptibility gene for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). Previous studies have suggested that alterations in the dosage of PTCHD1 may contribute to the etiology of both ASD and ID. However, there has not yet been a thorough investigation regarding mechanisms that regulate PTCHD1 expression. We sought to characterize the Ptchd1 promoter in a mouse neuronal model, as well as to identify and validate cis regulatory elements. We defined specific regions of the Ptchd1 promoter essential for robust expression in P19-induced neurons. Evolutionarily-conserved putative transcription factor binding sites within these regions were subsequently identified. Using a pairwise comparison of chromatin accessibility between mouse forebrain and liver tissues, a candidate regulatory region, ~ 9.1 kbp downstream of the Ptchd1 stop codon was defined. This region harbours two ENCODE-predicted enhancer cis-regulatory elements. Further, using DNase footprint analysis, a putative YY1-binding motif was also identified. Genomic deletion of the entire 8 kbp downstream open chromatin region attenuated Ptchd1 transcription by over 60% in our neuronal model, corroborating its predicted regulatory function. This study provides mechanistic insights related to the expression of PTCHD1, and provides important context to interpret genetic and genomic variation at this locus which may influence neurodevelopment.
Objective: The coronavirus pandemic drastically increased social isolation. Autistic youth already experience elevated social isolation and loneliness, making them highly vulnerable to the impact of the pandemic. We examined trajectories of social disruption and loneliness in autistic and non-autistic youth during a six-month period of the pandemic (June 2020 until November 2020).
Method: Participants were 76 youth, ages 8 through 17, (Mage = 12.82, Nautistic = 51) with an IQ ≥ 70. Youth completed a biweekly measure of loneliness (Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale) and their parent completed a measure of pandemic-related family social disruption (Epidemic Pandemic Impacts Inventory).
Results: There were no time trends in loneliness across all youth, however, social disruption displayed linear, quadratic, and cubic trends. Non-autistic youth reported relatively greater declines in social disruption compared to autistic youth. Additionally, autistic youth reported relatively greater declines in loneliness relative to non-autistic youth. Greater social disruption was associated with higher loneliness, however, autistic youth demonstrated a relatively stronger relationship between social disruption and loneliness compared to non-autistic youth.
Conclusions: The current study was one of the first to investigate social disruption and loneliness in autistic youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results indicated that autistic youth experienced relative decreases in loneliness during this time, perhaps due to reductions in social demands. Nonetheless, when autistic youth did experience social disruption, they reported relatively higher levels of loneliness. This work contributes to our understanding of risk factors for loneliness and highlights the need to understand the benefits, as well as the challenges, to remote schooling and social interactions.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder typified by differences in social communication as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors, is often responsive to early behavioral intervention. However, there is limited information on whether such intervention can be augmented with pharmacological approaches. We conducted a double-blinded, placebo-controlled feasibility trial to examine the effects of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol combined with early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for children with ASD. Nine participants with ASD, ages three to ten, undergoing EIBI were enrolled and randomized to a 12-week course of propranolol or placebo. Blinded assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures focusing on social interaction were the General Social Outcome Measure-2 (GSOM-2) and Social Responsiveness Scale-Second Edition (SRS-2). Five participants completed the 12-week visit. The sample size was insufficient to evaluate the treatment efficacy. However, side effects were infrequent, and participants were largely able to fully participate in the procedures. Conducting a larger clinical trial to investigate propranolol’s effects on core ASD features within the context of behavioral therapy will be beneficial, as this will advance and individualize combined therapeutic approaches to ASD intervention. This initial study helps to understand feasibility constraints on performing such a study.
Keywords: autism; clinical trial; early intervention; propranolol.
Background: Reporting retention data is critical to determining the soundness of a study’s conclusions (internal validity) and broader generalizability (external validity). Although selective attrition can lead to overestimates of effects, biased conclusions, or overly expansive generalizations, retention rates are not reported in many longitudinal studies.
Methods: We examined multiple child- and family-level factors potentially associated with retention in a longitudinal study of younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 304) or typical development (n = 163). The sample was followed from the first year of life to 36 months of age, for up to 7 visits.
Results: Of the 467 infant siblings who were consented and participated in at least one research visit, 397 (85.0%) were retained to study completion at 36 months. Retention rates did not differ by familial risk group (ASD-risk vs. Low-risk), sex, race, ethnicity, age at enrollment, number of children in the family, maternal employment, marital status, or parent concerns about the child at enrollment. A stepwise regression model identified 4 variables that, together, provided the most parsimonious predictive model of study retention: maternal education, maternal age at child’s birth, travel distance to the study site, and diagnostic outcome classification at the final study visit.
Conclusions: The retained and not-retained groups did not differ on most demographic and clinical variables, suggesting few threats to internal and external validity. The significantly higher rate of retention of children diagnosed with ASD (95%) than typically developing children (83%) may, however, present biases when studying recurrence risk. We conclude by describing engagement and tracking methods that can be used to maximize retention in longitudinal studies of children at risk of ASD.
Keywords: attrition; autism; external validity; internal validity; longitudinal study; retention.
Fragile X messenger ribonucleoprotein 1 protein (FMRP) deficiency leads to fragile X syndrome (FXS), an autism spectrum disorder. The role of FMRP in prenatal human brain development remains unclear. Here, we show that FMRP is important for human and macaque prenatal brain development. Both FMRP-deficient neurons in human fetal cortical slices and FXS patient stem cell-derived neurons exhibit mitochondrial dysfunctions and hyperexcitability. Using multiomics analyses, we have identified both FMRP-bound mRNAs and FMRP-interacting proteins in human neurons and unveiled a previously unknown role of FMRP in regulating essential genes during human prenatal development. We demonstrate that FMRP interaction with CNOT1 maintains the levels of receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), a species-specific FMRP target. Genetic reduction of RACK1 leads to both mitochondrial dysfunctions and hyperexcitability, resembling FXS neurons. Finally, enhancing mitochondrial functions rescues deficits of FMRP-deficient cortical neurons during prenatal development, demonstrating targeting mitochondrial dysfunction as a potential treatment.
Keywords: FMR1; FMRP interactor; RACK1; ex vivo cortical slices; fragile X syndrome; human specific physiology; macaque; mitochondria; pluripotent stem cells.
Calling Cards is a platform technology to record a cumulative history of transient protein-DNA interactions in the genome of genetically targeted cell types. The record of these interactions is recovered by next-generation sequencing. Compared with other genomic assays, readouts of which provide a snapshot at the time of harvest, Calling Cards enables correlation of historical molecular states to eventual outcomes or phenotypes. To achieve this, Calling Cards uses the piggyBac transposase to insert self-reporting transposon “Calling Cards” into the genome, leaving permanent marks at interaction sites. Calling Cards can be deployed in a variety of in vitro and in vivo biological systems to study gene regulatory networks involved in development, aging, and disease. Out of the box, it assesses enhancer usage but can be adapted to profile-specific transcription factor (TF) binding with custom TF-piggyBac fusion proteins. The Calling Cards workflow has five main stages: delivery of Calling Cards reagents, sample preparation, library preparation, sequencing, and data analysis. Here, we first present a comprehensive guide for experimental design, reagent selection, and optional customization of the platform to study additional TFs. Then, we provide an updated protocol for the five steps, using reagents that improve throughput and decrease costs, including an overview of a newly deployed computational pipeline. This protocol is designed for users with basic molecular biology experience to process samples into sequencing libraries in 2 days. Familiarity with bioinformatic analysis and command line tools is required to set up the pipeline in a high-performance computing environment and to conduct downstream analyses. © 2023 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Preparation and delivery of Calling Cards reagents Support Protocol 1: Next-generation sequencing quantification of barcode distribution within self-reporting transposon plasmid pool and adeno-associated virus genome Basic Protocol 2: Sample collection and RNA purification Support Protocol 2: Library density quantitative PCR Basic Protocol 3: Sequencing library preparation Basic Protocol 4: Library pooling and sequencing Basic Protocol 5: Data analysis.
Keywords: calling cards; enhancer usage; epigenetics; gene regulation; transcription factor binding.
Background: Differences in responding to sensory stimuli, including sensory hyperreactivity (HYPER), hyporeactivity (HYPO), and sensory seeking (SEEK) have been observed in autistic individuals across sensory modalities, but few studies have examined the structure of these “supra-modal” traits in the autistic population.
Methods: Leveraging a combined sample of 3868 autistic youth drawn from 12 distinct data sources (ages 3-18 years and representing the full range of cognitive ability), the current study used modern psychometric and meta-analytic techniques to interrogate the latent structure and correlates of caregiver-reported HYPER, HYPO, and SEEK within and across sensory modalities. Bifactor statistical indices were used to both evaluate the strength of a “general response pattern” factor for each supra-modal construct and determine the added value of “modality-specific response pattern” scores (e.g., Visual HYPER). Bayesian random-effects integrative data analysis models were used to examine the clinical and demographic correlates of all interpretable HYPER, HYPO, and SEEK (sub)constructs.
Results: All modality-specific HYPER subconstructs could be reliably and validly measured, whereas certain modality-specific HYPO and SEEK subconstructs were psychometrically inadequate when measured using existing items. Bifactor analyses supported the validity of a supra-modal HYPER construct (ωH = .800) but not a supra-modal HYPO construct (ωH = .653), and supra-modal SEEK models suggested a more limited version of the construct that excluded some sensory modalities (ωH = .800; 4/7 modalities). Modality-specific subscales demonstrated significant added value for all response patterns. Meta-analytic correlations varied by construct, although sensory features tended to correlate most with other domains of core autism features and co-occurring psychiatric symptoms (with general HYPER and speech HYPO demonstrating the largest numbers of practically significant correlations).
Limitations: Conclusions may not be generalizable beyond the specific pool of items used in the current study, which was limited to caregiver report of observable behaviors and excluded multisensory items that reflect many “real-world” sensory experiences.
Conclusion: Of the three sensory response patterns, only HYPER demonstrated sufficient evidence for valid interpretation at the supra-modal level, whereas supra-modal HYPO/SEEK constructs demonstrated substantial psychometric limitations. For clinicians and researchers seeking to characterize sensory reactivity in autism, modality-specific response pattern scores may represent viable alternatives that overcome many of these limitations.
Keywords: Autism; Hyperreactivity; Hyporeactivity; Integrative data analysis; Item response theory; Measurement; Meta-analysis; Responsiveness; Sensitivity; Sensory features; Sensory seeking.
Fragile X messenger ribonucleoprotein 1 protein (FMRP) binds many mRNA targets in the brain. The contribution of these targets to fragile X syndrome (FXS) and related autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains unclear. Here, we show that FMRP deficiency leads to elevated microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) in developing human and non-human primate cortical neurons. Targeted MAP1B gene activation in healthy human neurons or MAP1B gene triplication in ASD patient-derived neurons inhibit morphological and physiological maturation. Activation of Map1b in adult male mouse prefrontal cortex excitatory neurons impairs social behaviors. We show that elevated MAP1B sequesters components of autophagy and reduces autophagosome formation. Both MAP1B knockdown and autophagy activation rescue deficits of both ASD and FXS patients’ neurons and FMRP-deficient neurons in ex vivo human brain tissue. Our study demonstrates conserved FMRP regulation of MAP1B in primate neurons and establishes a causal link between MAP1B elevation and deficits of FXS and ASD.