Podcast: How to predict severe and dangerous behavior

On the first podcast of 2024, we describe a new paper in the Journal of the American Medical Association or JAMA which uses physiological measurements like heart rate and skin conductance to predict severe and dangerous behaviors, specifically aggression. If aggression can be predicted, it might be able to be prevented. It turns out aggression can be predicted up to 3 minutes before an episode occurs, in the future these measures can be used to possibly redirect aggression. In a separate study, the issue of stigma is addressed. There is an intense debate over “person first” vs. “identity first” language in autism, promoting recommendations of using one over the other because fear that person first language promotes stigma against autism. A new study shows that there is no added prejudice or fear using either person first or identity first language, but the stigma associated with schizophrenia is worse than it is for autism. What contributes to stigma? There is a wide range of experiences and perceptions of autism that need to be addressed. It’s not as simple as the language used.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38127348/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37965364/

searchers are increasingly relying on online methods for data collection, including for qualitative research involving interviews and focus groups. In this letter, we alert autism researchers to a possible threat to data integrity in such studies: “scammer” participants, who may be posing as autistic people and/or parents of autistic children in research studies, presumably for financial gain. Here, we caution qualitative autism researchers to be vigilant of potential scammer participants in their online studies and invite a broader discussion about the implications of such fraudulent acts.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous disorder (12) and it affects 1 out of 36 children (3). Due to its heterogeneity, the causes of ASD are still poorly understood and scientific research is now focused on the early identification of bio-behavioral markers to anticipate the age of diagnosis (4). Making an early diagnosis has positive implications in terms of implementation of timely evidence-based interventions and, consequently, better outcomes (5). In the complex arena of interventions for ASD, some of them are evidence-based, while others (a) are proposed without scientific basis (6), or (b) they have not yet completed the necessary steps to move from basic research to large-scale clinical application but are transferred to clinical practice. Regarding option b, in recent years, we have witnessed a worrying increase in institutes that proposing to families to treat ASD with stem cells from various sources, including those obtained from cord blood (7). The alarming aspect of this potential therapeutic proposal is the promise of significant clinical improvements in children who undergo this treatment. These institutes, which are often located in countries with low medical standards, are not proposing a research trial but the use of stem cells as a therapeutic option already validated by basic research. However, to date, can we say that the use of stem cells is an evidence-based treatment? The answer is no, and we will try in the following lines to explain the reasons for this negative answer.

Abstract

Emerging evidence suggests that the higher prevalence of autism in individuals who are assigned male than assigned female at birth results from both biological factors and identification biases. Autistic individuals who are assigned female at birth (AFAB) and those who are gender diverse experience health disparities and clinical inequity, including late or missed diagnosis and inadequate support. In this Viewpoint, an international panel of clinicians, scientists, and community members with lived experiences of autism reviewed the challenges in identifying autism in individuals who are AFAB and proposed clinical and research directions to promote the health, development, and wellbeing of autistic AFAB individuals. The recognition challenges stem from the interplay between cognitive differences and nuanced or different presentations of autism in some AFAB individuals; expectancy, gender-related, and autism-related biases held by clinicians; and social determinants. We recommend that professional development for clinicians be supported by health-care systems, professional societies, and governing bodies to improve equitable access to assessment and earlier identification of autism in AFAB individuals. Autistic AFAB individuals should receive tailored support in education, identity development, health care, and social and professional sense of belonging

This week’s podcast episode re-explores a question about a potential therapy for autism – minocycline. Minocycline is an antibiotic used to treat a number of different infections and some anecdotal reports have linked it to an improvement of autism. This has led to some experimental trials on minocycline, with inconclusive results. This week, a multisite study showed NO effects of minocycline for autism features or outcomes, but that doesn’t mean it is NOT a great antibiotic. If you need it, use it! Also, do autistic people spend too much time on their screens? Well, they seem to spend more time on devices and screens, but it might all be bad. Listen to the podcast for more information on this.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-023-06132-1

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10709772/?report=printable

A recent publication in the Lancet was dedicated to clinical recommendations to support autistic females at birth. Because more males than females are diagnosed with autism, their needs are often misunderstood, misinterpreted, or just ignored. Researchers, clinicians, scientists, parents and self-advocates from around the world joined together to identify those needs and propose solutions that can be implemented in everyday care. Listen to this week’s podcast episode to learn more, or read the article in its entirety at the link below.

https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1i5LV8Mut2Mzvb

Nobody ever talks about catatonia in autism. This podcast explores the symptoms of catatonia, how to measure it, what parents should know about tracking the symptoms, what the treatments are, and what the causes are. Dr. Martine Lamy from Cincinnati Children’s Hospital explains her work looking at genetic causes in those with catatonia and neurodevelopmental disorders. It’s important to do genetic testing on all individuals who present with catatonia because this information led to better treatments in some people. Identifying a genetic cause of not just catatonia but also neurodevelopmental disorders like ASD gives families a community but also allows them to identify more targeted interventions.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37864080/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37642312/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36708735/

https://globalgenes.org/rare-disease-patient-services/

In recognition of September 26th, this week’s podcast episode explores one of the more dangerous issues in autism: wandering. But it’s really not wandering in the traditional sense. Wandering in autism mostly means running off, bolting, deliberately with intent and without permission. Obviously this leads to some very dangerous situations for people on the spectrum. How can it be mitigated or understood? Some behavioral therapies are helpful, but new technologies have allowed for more options to bring back loved ones that have run off unexpectedly. Finally, the community needs to be better aware of possible stressors or triggers that trigger a wandering episode and work together with families to prevent running off. This problem is not caused by one thing, and the community needs multiple solutions to keep kids and adults safe.

www.september26.org

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37492814/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32576789/

Objectives: Autism spectrum disorder (autism) is a heterogeneous condition that poses challenges in describing the needs of individuals with autism and making prognoses about future outcomes. We applied a newly proposed definition of profound autism to surveillance data to estimate the percentage of children with autism who have profound autism and describe their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics.

Methods: We analyzed population-based surveillance data from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network for 20 135 children aged 8 years with autism during 2000-2016. Children were classified as having profound autism if they were nonverbal, were minimally verbal, or had an intelligence quotient <50.

Results: The percentage of 8-year-old children with profound autism among those with autism was 26.7%. Compared with children with non-profound autism, children with profound autism were more likely to be female, from racial and ethnic minority groups, of low socioeconomic status, born preterm or with low birth weight; have self-injurious behaviors; have seizure disorders; and have lower adaptive scores. In 2016, the prevalence of profound autism was 4.6 per 1000 8-year-olds. The prevalence ratio (PR) of profound autism was higher among non-Hispanic Asian/Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander (PR = 1.55; 95 CI, 1.38-1.73), non-Hispanic Black (PR = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.67-1.86), and Hispanic (PR = 1.50; 95% CI, 0.88-1.26) children than among non-Hispanic White children.

Conclusions: As the population of children with autism continues to change, describing and quantifying the population with profound autism is important for planning. Policies and programs could consider the needs of people with profound autism across the life span to ensure their needs are met.

Keywords: autism; public health; surveillance.

In a highly discussed paper, researchers from Drexel University report their findings on a scientific and methodologically rigorous study on the accuracy of information posted on the social media platform Tik-Tok. They also discuss where the information comes from and how it is viewed. The accurate and inaccurate posts get “liked” equally, meaning they are taken just as seriously. There are billions of inaccurate posts being viewed, and misinformation spread. On this week’s podcast, all four authors of this paper summarize what they found and what families should know.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37544970/

This week’s podcast covers two new papers of interest to the autism community. First, another study showing increase in self harm and suicide in those with autism – no new news there – but a new discovery this week showed a vulnerability of females with a diagnosis. The study also explores the lower rate of suicide in those with IDD but higher rate of self harm in this same group. Second, the mystery of autism genetics is slowly unveiled. Why is rare variation so influential in an autism diagnosis? As it turns out those with rare variation also have common variation, piling on the genetic liability in this group. Common variation is also uniquely linked to language delay in autism, so is this a core feature? Links below are the scientific articles as well as resources to support those dealing with mental health problems in the autistic community.

Mental health links:

https://vkc.vumc.org/assets/files/resources/mental-health-toolkit.pdf

https://www.camh.ca/-/media/files/cundill-centre/depression-and-autism-full-pdf.pdf

https://www.yorku.ca/health/lab/ddmh/wp-content/uploads/sites/407/2021/04/Mental-Health-Literacy-Guide-for-Autism_Section-9.pdf

https://www.azrieli-anc.com/autism-mental-healthhttps://www.autism.org.uk/advice-and-guidance/topics/mental-health/suicide#How%20do%20I%20get%20help%20and%20support

Articles:

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2808056

Genetics study is OPEN ACCESS: https://www.pnas.org/doi/abs/10.1073/pnas.2215632120?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub++0pubmed

On this week’s ASF podcast: there are dozens of good reasons why scientists need to study the brains of people with autism. One is to understand what happens in the brain as people with autism get older and see how the brain changes over time. Another is to identify mechanisms of autism to help all neuroscientists figure out how the brain works. A third is improve medicine by determining what helps what people at what age. Scientists @UCDavis, @Penn and @UCLA examined the individual brain cells of people with autism to address these three questions, revealing that the autistic brain shows some similarities to brains of people with Alzheimer’s Disease. In addition, inflammation seen in the brain may be caused by too much activity of cells talking to each other. Studying the brains of people with autism is essential to better understanding and is made possible by families who are committed to research. 

www.autismbrainnet.org.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36862688/